Past Perfect


Forma


[had + past participle]


Ejemplos:


  • You had studied English before you moved to New York.

  • Had you studied English before you moved to New York?

  • You had not studied English before you moved to New York.


Lista Completa Formas de Past Perfect


USO 1 Acción Completada Antes de Algo en el Pasado



Past Perfect expresa la idea de que algo va a ocurrir antes de otra acción en el pasado.

También puede mostrar que algo ocurrió antes de un tiempo específico en el pasado.


Ejemplos:


  • I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.

  • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.

  • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.

  • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?

  • She only understood the movie because she had read the book.

  • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.

  • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.

  • A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?

  • B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.


USE 2 Duración Antes de Algo en el Pasado  (Non-Continuous Verbs)






Con Non- Continuous Verbs (Tipos de verbos)algunos usos no continuos de los  Mixed Verbs Tipos de verbos, usamos Past Perfect para mostrar que algo comenzó en el pasado y continuó hasta otra acción en el pasado.


Ejemplos:


  • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.

  • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.

  • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.


Aunque el uso anterior de Past Perfect se limita normalmente a los verbos No Continuos y usos no continuos de los Verbos Mixtos, las palabras "live," "work," "teach," y "study" se utilizan a veces de esta manera, a pesar de que NO SON verbos no continuos.


IMPORTANTE Tiempos Específicos con Past Perfect



A diferencia de Present Perfect, es posible utilizar palabras o frases de tiempo específicos con Past Perfect. Aunque esto es posible, por lo general no es necesario.


Ejemplo:


  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.



ADEMÁS


Si la acción en Past Perfect ocurrió en un momento específico. Simple Past puede utilizarse en lugar de Past Perfect cuando "before" o "after" se utiliza en la oración. Las palabras "before" y "after" en realidad expresan lo que ocurre primero, por lo que Past Perfect es opcional. Por esta razón, las dos oraciones siguientes son correctas.


Ejemplos:


  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

  • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.


SIN EMBARGO




Si Past Perfect no se refiere a una acción en un momento específico, Past Perfect no es opcional. Compara los ejemplos a continuación. aquí Past Perfect se refiere a la falta de experiencia en lugar de una acción en un momento específico. Por esta razón, Simple Past No puede ser usado.


Ejemplos:


  • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Incorrecto

  • She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correcto


UBICACIÓN DE ADVERBIOS


Los ejemplos siguientes muestran la colocación de los adverbios gramaticales tales como: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.


Ejemplos:


  • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.

  • Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?


ACTIVO / PASIVO

Ejemplos:


  • George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license. Activo

  • Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license. Pasivo


Más sobre: Formas Verbales Activas y Pasivas