Future Perfect


Future Perfect tiene dos formas diferentes: "will have done" y "be going to have done." A diferencia de las formas del Simple Future, las formas de Future Perfect son por lo general intercambiables.


FORMA DE Future Perfect con "Will"

[will have + pasado participio]


Ejemplos:

  • You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

  • Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?

  • You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.


FORMA DE  Future Perfect con "Be Going To"

[am/is/are + going to have + pasado participio]


Ejemplos:

  • You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

  • Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?

  • You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.


NOTA: Es posible utilizar ya sea "will" o "be going to" para crear Future Perfect con poca o nula diferencia en el significado.


Lista completa de Formas de Future Perfect


USO 1 Acción Completada Antes de Algo en el Futuro



Future Perfect expresa la idea de que algo va a ocurrir antes de otra acción en el futuro. También puede mostrar que algo va a pasar antes de un tiempo específico en el futuro.


Ejemplos:

  • By next November, I will have received my promotion.

  • By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.

  • I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.

  • Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing?

  • Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon.

  • By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.

  • How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50?


Observa en los ejemplos anteriores que los puntos de referencia (marcados en cursiva) están en Simple Present y no en Simple Future. Esto se debe a que las interrupciones están en Time Clauses Simple Future (sección adverbio) y no se puede utilizar tiempos verbales futuros en las cláusulas de tiempo.


USO 2 Duración Antes de Algo en el Futuro (Verbos no Continuos)



Con los Non-Continuous Verbs (Tipos de verbos) y algunos usos no continuos de los  Mixed Verbs (Tipos de verbos), usamos Future Perfect para mostrar que algo va a continuar hasta otra acción en el futuro.


Ejemplos:

  • I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.

  • By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.


Aunque el uso anterior de Future Perfect se limita normalmente a los verbos no continuos y usos no continuos de los Verbos Mixtos, las palabras "live," "work," "teach," y "study" se utilizan a veces de esta manera, a pesar de que NO SON verbos no continuos.


RECUERDA: No hay Futuro en Time Clauses

Como todas las formas futuras, Future Perfect no puede ser utilizado en las cláusulas comenzando con expresiones de tiempo, tales como: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. En vez Future Perfect, se usa Present Perfect.


Ejemplos:

  • I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Incorrecto

  • I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Correcto


UBICACIÓN DE ADVERBIOS

Los ejemplos siguientes muestran la colocación de los adverbios gramaticales tales como: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.


Ejemplos:


  • You will only have learned a few words.

  • Will you only have learned a few words?

  • You are only going to have learned a few words.

  • Are you only going to have learned a few words?


ACTIVO / PASSIVO

Ejemplos:

  • They will have completed the project before the deadline. Activo

  • The project will have been completed before the deadline. Pasivo

  • They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. Activo


Más sobre: Formas Verbales Activas y Pasivas